Marketing of Banana
Banana is said to be a
common man's fruit, because there is large area under banana in India, its per hectare
yield is also the highest (30 - 35 MT/ha) of all the fruits. Therefore its production is
large and the prices are within the reach of common people. Total area under banana is
3.70 lakh ha, next to Mango. Among the States, Maharashtra contributes the maximum area of
about 90,000 ha. In Maharashtra, area under banana is concentrated in Jalgaon district
with nearly 60% area in that district.
growing banana are Parbhani, Nanded and Thane. Banana fruits from Jalgaon area are
marketed in most parts of India, particularly in the north. In Tamil Nadu, banana is grown
in Cauvery delta area.
Banana is a very
perishable fruit and hence its marketing faces many problems such as chain of middlemen,
transport, storage, etc. In local or short distance marketing number of intermediaries is
small (one or two) but in long distance marketing commission agents and wholesalers are
involved in addition to co-operative society.
Few findings of
surveys on marketing of banana are presented here.
In the marketing of
banana in Jalgaon district three channels were identified.
- co-operative fruit sale society - commission agent - wholesaler - retailer
- Group sale agency commission agent - wholesaler - retailer consumer
Private agency - commission agent - wholesaler - Retailer consumer.
Marketing costs, margins and price spread
All these indicators indicate comparatively greater economic as well as
operational efficiency of the marketing mechanism of channel I i.e. Co-operative Fruit
Sale Society over remaining ones. However, it is suggested that the producer's share in
consumer's rupee in Channel I can further be increased if the co-operative Fruit Sale
Society directly deals with the markets in terminal markets rather than selling the
produce to the commission agent.
& Sangli: (Maharashtra):
The major proportion
of produce was marketed through two marketing channels
I Producer - co-op.
Society - retailer - consumer
II Producer -
wholesaler - retailer - consumer
The producer's share
was 34.53% and 31.05% for member and non-member producer's respectively. The members of
producer's co-operative association could therefore derive relatively higher profit
Producer - co-op.
Society - wholesaler
Retailer - consumer
Comm.to society 8%
Comm. To wholesaler 5%
i. Cultivation 65.6%
- Producer - wholesaler - Retailer - cons
- Producer - co-operative society -
commission agent -cum-wholesaler-
Retailer - consumer
i. Co-op. Society
ii. Private 61.59
i. Co-op. 51.65%
ii. Private 48.37%
The practice of opting
pre-harvest contractors at the time of 50per cent maturity of the crop is commonly
followed by majority ((88%) of the growers. The prime reason stated by the farmers was
that the pre-harvest contractors give advance payments before harvest of the bananas to
meet their immediate needs for production, consumption and social activities. Other
- High fluctuations in prices (400%)
- High winds during monsoon causing
damage to the plants.
- Absence of institutional credit.
- Absence of crop insurance
- Small production and uneconomic
quantities available for marketing
- Long association with contractors.
- Price discrimination in the markets.
- High marketing costs.
constraints were observed
- Non-institutional agencies and
undesirable market practices in the markets.
- Deduction of 2 bunches for every 100
bunches as Profit bunches.
- Combining two small bunches as one
bunch during counting for price fixing.
- Non-harvest of small size bunches.
- Delay in payment of balance amount
- Violation of contracts i.e. abandoning
the harvest if there is slump in prices.
- Non-availability of institutional
agency for banana which is highly perishable.
- Non-availability of any viable storage
- Non-existing institutional marketing
agency like regulated market, co-op.marketing or producer's
- Setting up banana based agro-processing
- Marketing banana through regulated
- Bringing co-operative marketing as new
channel in the existing channels which will increase producer's share in the consumer's
Harichhal Banana in Gorakhpur (U.P)
- Produce - Retailer - consumer channel
for the sale of Harichhal banana was more profitable compared to other systems of sale.
- For increasing marketing efficiency,
grower should develop co-operative system of transport.
- Storage facility should be developed on
co-operative lines, so that the farmers will be protected from stress sale.
- Weights and measures should be
- Market information should be
communicated to the growers regarding prices of banana.