Cultivation Of Fodders 

Most of the dairy animals in India are reared on crop residues. Availability of cultivated fodder, dry fodder and concentrates is deficient by 36%, 40% and 44% respectively. It is therefore necessary to increase are a of cultivation under fodder crops. In rain fed crops MAIZE, SORGHUM, MILLET, STYLOHEMATA, SERATRO, ANJAN, COW-PEA, PAWNA, MARVEL. In the Rabi season oat, BURSEEM, LUCERN, MAIZE and again in summer, depending on type of soil SORGHUM, COW-PEA, MAIZE can be taken.

Calender for cultivation of fodder round the year can be chalked out as under.

Basic need – To provide fodder for ten cows giving ten liters of milk each.

Area 

Season

Fodder crops

Sowing

Time period
when fodder will be available

Quantity available in quintals

40

KHARIFF

MAIZE + PAWNA

May-June

July-Aug

175

RABI

OAT + BURSEEM

December

Jan-Mar

190

SUMMER

MILLET(BAJRA) + COW-PEA

April

June-July

145

40

KHARIFF

SORGHUM OR MAIZE + COW-PEA

July-Aug

October
November

145

RABI

BURSEEM+OAT

January

March-April

190

SUMMER

MAIZE + PAWNA

May

July-Aug

175

20

KHARIFF

GAJRAJ (3Yr)

Aug

Three years

280

RABI

LUCERN (3Yr)

Aug 

Three years

230

20

KHARIFF

GAJRAJ MAIZE

December

3 yrs

280

COW-PEA

Aug-Sept

Octo Nov

90

RABI

OAT OR BURSEEM

December 

Jan-Mar

100


CULTIVATION OF FODDER CROPS, THEIR DETAILS OF CULTIVATION

1.        Jowar (Sorghum):-

i.        Sowing Time: - March April June to August upto Nov.

ii.      Distance: -25 cm

iii.      Variety: - Ruchira (RS 11-4) Maldandi Nilva M.P.Chari PC 6, REO Pusa Chari ISP 4776 SSG 5903

iv.    Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -20 Kg  (By machine) 50 kg Broad Casting

v.          Fertiliser (Hectare): - N-90-120 kg, P-30 kg, K-10 kg

vi.    Harvesting: -1st cut after 70 days Then  each cut after every 45-50 days

vii. Yield per Hectare: -1st cutting 25-30 tonnes Then 10-15 tonnes each cut.

2.        Maize:-

i.         Sowing Time:- March April June to Aug Oct-Nov

ii.        Distance: -25 cm or 30 to 45 cm

iii.      Variety: - African tall, Majri Com, Ganga Safed 2, Ranga 5, Deccan Double, Queenganga 101, Gbm2, Deccan 103

iv.      Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -45 kg 70kg Broadcasting

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - N 80-120 kg P30-40 kg

vi.      Harvesting: -1st cut after 60-65 days

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -30-40 tonnes

3.        Cowpea:-

i.         Sowing Time: - Feb-May June-Aug.

ii.       Distance: -30 to 45 cm

iii.      Variety: - Ko1 EC 4216 HFC 42-1 PHOS 1 C-152 Number 998 RUSSIAN JIANT K 397 RS 9 UPC 5287

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -35 to 40 kg with 50 kg Broadcasting

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - N 15 kg, P 90   kg, K 30 kg

vi.     Harvesting: -1st cut 40-50 days their after 30-35 days

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -2 to 3 cuttings 35 tonnes

4.        Gajraj:-

i.         Sowing Time:- March-July June-July

ii.       Distance: -90x90 cm or 90x60 cm

iii.      Variety: - NB 21 RBNG Gajraj

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -25000

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - 80 car + load F.Y.M After cutting 25 kg N

vi.     Harvesting: - 7 – 8 weeks 1st cut thereafter 4-6 weeks

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -30-35 tonnes from each cut

5.        Lucern:-

i.         Sowing Time:- Oct-Dec

ii.       Distance: -20 cm in line

iii.      Variety: - T-9, Chikalthana, Sirsa 9, Poona 1-B, Anand 2

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -25 to 30 kg

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - N-15 kg P-160-200 kg K – 40-80 kg

vi.     Harvesting: - 45-65 days

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -1000 to 100 quintal

6.        Oat:-

i.         Sowing Time:- Oct-Dec

ii.       Distance: -25 cm

iii.      Variety: - Kent, HFO 212B, OF-6, OS-7, UPO 94 ,No.2688, OL-9, IGFR-2688

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -100 kgs

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - N-90-120 kg P-30 kg K – 15 kg

vi.     Harvesting: - Within 3 months

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -450 to 500 quintal

7.        Burseem:-

i.         Sowing Time:- Oct-Dec

ii.       Distance: -20 cm

iii.      Variety: - JB1, MESCAVI, VARDAN, B.L.1,2,10,  JB-2

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -30 kgs

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - N- 15kg P-120 kg K – 40 kg

vi.     Harvesting: - 2 1/2-3 months, 3-4 cuttings/yr

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -800 to 1000 quintal

8.        Bajra:-

i.         Sowing Time:- Mar-April June-Aug

ii.       Distance: -25 Cm

iii.      Variety: - JAINT, RAJKI-K, 674,677, L-72,74, MBHF 1/4 E

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -10 kgs

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - N 70-120 kg, P 20-30 kg, K 5 kg

vi.     Harvesting: - 3 months

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -450 to 550 quintal total

9.        Stylo Hemata:-

i.         Sowing Time:- June-Aug

ii.       Distance: -50 Cm

iii.      Variety: - Hamal, Scaba,  Humilil

iv.     Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: - 8-10 kgs

v.       Fertiliser (Hectare): - P 50 kg

vi.     Harvesting: - 40-45 days 2 cuttings

vii.    Yield per Hectare: -250 to 350 quintal total

10.     Para Grass:-

i.            Sowing Time:- May-July

ii.          Distance: -30x30 Cm

iii.         Variety: - Para

iv.        Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -100,000 seedlings

v.          Fertiliser (Hectare): - 40 Cartloads FYM, N 25 kg

vi.        Harvesting: - 60-90 days 8-9 cuttings in a year

vii.       Yield per Hectare: - 100 to 200 tonnes/year

11.     Rhodes:-

i.            Sowing Time:- June-July

ii.          Distance: -60x60 Cm

iii.         Variety: - Rhodes 10

iv.        Seed rate seedlings per Hectare: -50,000 seedlings

v.          Fertiliser (Hectare): - 40 cart load FYM Mixed

vi.        Harvesting: - 90-120 days 2 to 3 cuttings

vii.       Yield per Hectare: -150 quintal

The yield depends upon type of soil, its fertility and availability of adequate water in time. The yield also depends upon quality of seeds, seed rate, fertilisers used, weeding done and general agroclimatic conditions.

While deciding type of fodder crop to be taken, one has to consider number of animals maintained and green fodder required per day. Accordingly the land can be cultivated phase wise so that green fodder can be made available of equal quantity per day.

If good land is available, excessive fodder can be ensilaged. In other conditions it is suggested to chaff the fodder along with dry fodder and fed.


Ag.
Technologies
(Animal Husbandry)