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Dairy

Dairy by-Products

Introduction

In recent years there has been wide spread and increasing interest through out the world in creating newer channels of utilization for the by-products of the dairy industry. Conversion of edible substances into non-food items is not ordinarily justifiable especially in countries where there is an overall shortage of milk supplies. It has always been realized that economic disposal of by-products is an essential perquisite to profitable dairying.

Definition

A dairy by-product may be defined as a product of commercial value produced today the manufacture of a main product.

By-products of Indian dairy industry

Main product

By-product

Cream

Skim milk

Butter

Butter milk

Ghee

Lassi
Ghee residue

Chhana/Paneer
Cheese
Casein

Whey

Composition of some by-products (%)

Name of
by-product
(from cow milk)

Composition

Water

Fat

Protein

Lactose

Ash

Skim milk

90.6

0.1

3.6

5.0

0.7

Butter milk
(sweet cream)

91.0

0.4

3.4

4.5

0.7

Lassi

96.2

0.8

1.4

1.2

0.4

Ghee residue
(sweet-cream butter)

9.7

61.4

24.8

-

4.1

Chhana whey

93.6

0.5

0.4

5.1

0.4

Cheese whey

93.1

0.3

0.9

4.9

0.6

Acid-casein-whey

93.1

0.1

1.0

5.1

0.7

By-products and names of food products made are given below

By-product

Food products made

Skim milk

Flavoured milks

 

Sterilized flavoured milk

 

Cultured butter milk
Acidophilus milk
Bulgarian buttermilk

 

Concentrated sour skim milk

 

Plain condensed skim milk
Sweetened condensed skim milk
Low-lactose condensed skim milks
(Frozen condensed skim milk)

 

Dried skim milk

 

Cottage cheese/Bakers' cheese/Quarg
Gammelost/Sapsago
Casein (edible)

Buttermilk

Condensed buttermilk

Whey

Whey beverage
Yeast whey
Sweetened condensed milk
Whey paste

Lassi

Beverage

Ghee - residue

Toffee or paste

Ghee

Ghee is a clarified butter fat prepared from cow or buffalo milk. The largest ghee producing states are U.P, A.P, Punjab, Rajasthan, M.P, Bihar, Hariyana etc. The production of ghee is higher in winter and lower in summer.

Method of preparation: - cream accumulated after few days is usually taken in a suitable vessel and heated and stirred on a low flame to remove the moisture contain. After removing moisture contain further heating is stopped then cooling is done. On cooling, when the residue has settled down the clear fat is decanted into suitable containers.

Characteristics

Cow

Buffalo

Milk fat

99 to 99.5%

Moisture

Not more than 0.5%

Unsaponiable matter

 

Carotene (m g./g.)

3.2-7.4

-

Vit. A (I.U./g.)

19-34

17-38

Charred casein, salts
of copper and iron, etc.

Max.2.8 (Agmark) Traces

Lassi

Lassi, also called chhas or matha, refers to desi buttermilk, which is the by-product obtained when churning curdled whole milk with crude indigenous devices for the production of desi butter (makkhan). It appears that 50-60kg. (ave.55kg) of lassi are producted for every kg of ghee (by labret). Lassi contains appreciable amounts of milk proteins and phospholipids.

Composition

Characteristics

Milk(%)

Water

96.2

Total solids

3.8

Fat

0.8

Solids-not-fat

3.0

Protein

1.3

Lactose

1.2

Ash

0.4

Lactic acid

0.44

Buttermilk

  1. Condensed buttermilk
  2. Also known as semi-solid buttermilk, this is usually sweet cream buttermilk which has been ripened and condensed (approx. 3:1) in much the same way as concentrated sour skim milk. Alternatively, sour-cream buttermilk may be used without ripening it, but the acidity (lactic) of the buttermilk prior to its being condensed should be greater than 1.6 %. This will ensure in the finished product a 5-6 per cent acidity, which is necessary for long keeping quality. Either sour whey or an organic acid (such as lactic, acetic, citric or tartaric) may be used to increase the acidity of buttermilk.

  3. Dairy buttermilk
  4. Soft cheese from buttermilk

The production of soft cheese from creamery buttermilk may be outlined as follows; fresh buttermilk, obtained by churning sweet-cream butter, is admixed with fresh skim milk in the proportion of 1:1. The mixture is pasteurized at 650C for 20 minutes, cooled to 350C, inoculated with lactic starter @ 10 per cent and allowed setting for 3 hours. The curd is cut with standard cheese knives and the curd cubes subjected to a cooking process during which a maximum of 400C is reached in 15-20 minutes. The curd cubes are then collected in a muslin cloth and pressed overnight, preferably inside cold store (5-100C), to remove excess moisture. The pressed curd, which has a rather low keeping quality, can be utilized either for direct consumption after the addition of sugar @ 15 per cent, or in the manufacture of processed cheese up to 10 per cent of raw cheese.