Important varieties of sugarcane
Sugarcane is an important commercial crop, which is the basic raw material for the manufacture of sugar. Therefore, it has industrial importance per-hectare yield and percent sugar recovery is the two factors contributing towards production of sugar. Hence while developing new varieties of sugarcane, these two factors get prime importance in the minds of Scientists (breeders). The work of developing new varieties is a continious process and newer varieties are introduced for cultivation after certain interval. In Maharashtra, sugarcane research is carried out mainly at Padegaon, near Neera in Pune District. This research station has evolved 13 new varieties. These are as under :
Co.419: This variety was evolved in 1936. It has many good qualities and it is still grown in some sugar factory areas. It is cross between old variety POJ 2878 and Co 290. It matures early, and hence becomes available for crushing at the beginning of the crushing season. The cane size is big and green in colour. It is also good for ratooning .Per hectare yield of cane is about 132 mt and that of sugar 18.80 mt. (recovery 14.2%). However, it is affected by smut.
Co.740: This was released in 1956 and since then it is very popular with the sugarcane growers. This variety is developed from double crosses between (Co 421 & Co.440) and (Co.464 & Co. 440). The leaves are erect and broad. There are irregular white spots/streaks. The cane colour is greenish yellow. The variety flower late with sparce flowering. Even if there is some lodging of cane, there is no breaking or cracking of internodes. Recovery of sugar is medium but it lasts longer. There is good tillering and it is good for ratooming. It withstand salts and hence suitable for salt and chopan land. It also withstands shortage of water. Since its duration is long it is good to crush in the latter part of the season; particularly after January. It has high yielding ability. Yield varies from 106 mt. In Suru to 156 mt. In Adsali and sugar yield from 12.60 mt. To 20.40 mt., (Recovery 13%)
Co 7219 (Sanjeevani): This was released in 1982. It is cross between Co.449 and Co 658. The leaves are long and broad and are yellowish green. Cane is of medium size. There is depression on higher side of eye-buds. The variety matures early and is a good yielder. The cane lodges but does not break. It is good for crushing in the early part of the crushing season and is good for pre-season and suru seasons. The yield is about 125 mt.Of cane and 17.5 MT of sugar (Recovery 14%). It is susceptible to smut to a certain extent.
Co.M 7125 (Sampada): It was released for cultivation in 1982. It is obtained through cross between Co 740 and Co 775. The leaves are of medium size and yellowish green in colour. Cane colour is also yellowish green. It grows tall but does not lodge. It has good sugar content and is also good for gur making. It is suitable for tatooning. The cane and sugar yields are 110 MT and 13.5 MT respectively (Recovery 12.3%). It is tolerant to smut disease.
Co-7527: This variety was released in 1988 and is suitable for Suru Plantation. It is cross between Co-62175 and Co.658. The leaves are broad and drooping down. The colour of leaves is dark green, cane is big in size and green. Internodes are long and bigger towards eye-bud. The maturity lasts longer. It is suitable for cultivation in South Satara, Sangli & Kolhapur Districts. Yield of cane is 116 MT and of Sugar 14.4 MT (Recovery 12.4%).
Co 88121: - This variety is released in 1993 and named as "Krishna". It is suitable for all the three seasons. This is obtained through a cross between Co.740 and Co.6806. The leaves are dark green and erect. Cane is medium size, purple coloured. It does not lodge, flowering is late and sparce. It tolerate water stress to some extent, good gur making. Yield of cane is 115 to 166 MT and that of sugar is 14.30 to 23.0 MT (12.4 to 13.8% recovery).
Co 8014 (Mahalaxmi): It is a cross between Co 740 and Co 6304 and is released in 1994. Leaves are of medium breadth and dark green. The colour of the cane is yellowish white. It tolerates water stress to a certain extent. It gives good yield if harvested after 12 to 14 months. It is recommended for South Satara, Sangli and Kolhapur districts. The yield of cane varies from 98 to 135 MT and that of sugar from 14.11 to 19.48 MT.
Co 86032 (Nira) - It is a cross between Co 62198 and Co 671. The sugar content is 19 to 20%. It is also suitable for gur making. Leaves are dark green and flowering is less; it does not lodge and hence yield is good. It is released for cultivation in 1996. Yield of cane varies from 106 to 159 MT in different seasons and that of sugar from 14.55 to 22.42.
Co C 671: - It is obtained by crossing Q 63 and Co 775. It is most popular among the farmers due to its good qualities. It matures in 9-10 months; it is crushed in latter part of the season and still gives good recovery and hence is profitable. It is good for ratooning and ratoon yield is more than suru yield. The yield potential is about 265 MT It is suitable for Adsali planting also.
Co C 85061: It is early maturing variety (in 11 month NR 12) yield potential is 187.5 MT. Cane size is medium, leaves are dark green and cane colour is greenish white.
Co- 8011: it has little delayed maturity. It is suitable for medium type of soil, and under limited supply of water and fertilizers. Tillering is very good. Leaves are medium size, colour of cane is yellowish green. It is good for ratooning. Yield potential is 150 MT and sugar recovery 12.5%.
Co M 7114: It is of medium duration and good for planting after November. Cane size big and leaves are broad. Colour of leaves is blackish green, eye-buds are big and colour of cane is green. Yield potential 138 MT and recovery 12.25 NR.
Co- S.I.776: It matures in 11 months and growth is very fast. Size of cane is small, there are cracks on internodes, leaves are thin, green in colour, eye-buds are round and small. Yield potential is 150 MT with recovery 12.5 NR.