TROPICAL & SUB-TROPICAL FRUITS
grape is the most important crop grown in the world. Mostly it grown for making wines and
preparation of raisin and then as a table fresh fruit. While in India, it is mainly grown
for table use. Grape cultivation is believed to have originated near Caspian Sea, however,
Indians know grapes since Roman times. Total area under grapes in India is about 40,000
ha, distributed mainly in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
At present, grape is
the most important fruit crop grown commercially with the objectives.
a.For table purpose
b.For export purpose
c.For making wines and
d.For making raisins.
Fresh grapes are a
fairly good source of minerals like calcium, phosphorous, iron and vitamins like B. Famous
champagne and other desert wines are prepared from grapes.
The ideal climate for grape growing is the Mediterranean climate. In its natural
habitat, the vines grow and produce during the hot and dry period. Under South Indian
conditions vines produce vegetative growth during the period from April to
September and then fruiting period from October to March. Temperatures above 100C
to 400C influence the yield and quality. High humidity and cloudy weather
invite many fungal diseases, besides lowering the T.S.S. : Acid ratio.
The grape is widely adopted to various soil conditions, but the yield and quality
reach to the highest on good fertile soils have pH 6.5 to 8.5, organic carbon above 1.0%,
free of lime and having a medium water holding capacity. Early but medium yields with high
T.S.S. are harvested on medium type of soils.
a . Table purpose varieties-
- Seeded varieties Cardinal,
concord Emperor, Italia, Anab-e-shahi, Cheema sahebi, Kalisahebi, Rao Sahebi,
- Seedless varieties Thompson
seedless, flame seedless, kishmish chorni, perlette, Arkavati.
- Raisin purpose varieties
Thompson seedless, manik chaman, sonaka, Black corinth, Black monukka, Arkavati, Dattier
- Wine varieties Chardonnay,
Cabernet Saurignnon, Bangalore Blue, Muscat, Blanc, Pinot Noir, Pinot Blane, White
Riesling, and Merlot.
is most commonly propagated by hard-wood cuttings, though propagation by seed soft wood
cutting, layering, grafting and budding is specific to certain situations. Occasionally,
unrooted cuttings are also planted directly in the field in the pre-determined position
for a vine. For hardwood cuttings, IBA, 1000 ppm treatment is useful for early, better and
uniform rooting of cutting. For grafting Dog ridge, Ramsey, 1616, 1613,1103P, So4, etc.
are used. Sometimes the rootstocks are planted in the field and there they are grafted
with suitable varieties.
Planting and Season:
Usually planting is
done from October onwards till January. Rarely planting is also done during June-July
where the monsoon is late. Monsoon planting is avoided mainly for avoiding diseases on
young growth. For planting N-S direction the trenches are opened. The size of trench may
be 60 to 75 cm. Deep wide. Then these trenches are filled with FYM, organic manures,
5:10:5 organic mixtures, single super phosphates, biofertilisers, neem cakes, etc. Spacing
for planting is maintained depending on soil type, variety and method of training. The
distance between two rows may be 2 to 3 m while distance between vines within a row will
be half of that, accommodating vines from 2000 to 5000 per hectare.
The following aspects
Gap filling: To be
done preferably during one month after planting.
Recut: Basal cut
keeping 2/3 buds is taken one month after planting with an objective to get uniform new
Supporting : The
bamboo supports are fixed for vine support and young growing points are trained on them
Weeding: The vine
rows are weeded out, twice/thrice depending on the intensity of weeds.
regular depending on soil and season are given.
applied with cow during slurry to hasten the growth.
protection measures are following depending on incidence of pests and diseases.
Care of young orchard:
Grapes vines takes
about 1.5 to 2 years after planting to bear the first crop. During this period the care of
young vines is taken as under:-
Training: The vines
are trained first on bamboo and then on support trellis. A suitable method of
training is adopted.
Initial pruning is done only for training i.e. for developing trunk, arm, fruiting, canes,
The fertilizer doses
including organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers are applied twice in a year.
schedule is prepared and followed for the total initial period of growing.
Special Horticultural practices:
training: The vines are trained on a suitable trellis i.e. T, Y,
H or bower and regularly pruned twice in a year. First annual pruning is done
during the month of April to get the new vegetative growth while second pruning to get the
crop is done during the month of October. While doing April pruning 0 to 2 buds on arm are
kept while doing October pruning 5 to 10 buds on fruiting cane are kept. Use of HCN is
done to have early, uniform and higher sprouting particularly after winter pruning is
Girdling: Vines are
trunk girdled at bloom period to increase the fruit set, to increase the weight and T.S.S.
and also to enhance maturity.
Use of hormones: The
following plant hormones at various stages and concentrations are usually used to increase
the yield and to improve the quality of bunches.
- At bloom
20 to 30 ppm; CCC
- At setting
.30 to 40 ppm; 6BA
.. 5-10 ppm
- At 4-6 mm size
50 ppm; Brassinos...100 ppm
- At 6-8 mm size
50 ppm; Cppu
Grape is strictly
irrigated perennial crop and regularly irrigated. For flood irrigation, 5-7 days during
summer 8-10 days during winter and 15-20 days during rainy season interval is
maintained while for drip irrigation, 40-50 L; 30-40, 20-30 L of water per day per vine,
water is applied.
Balanced nutrition and
use of chemical, organic and biofertilisers is essential to get a good crop of good
quality every year. About 700 to 900 N, 400 to 600 P and 750 to 1000 K Kgs/ ha/year are
applied to get about 30 to 35 tonnes produced yearly.
The use of vermiphos,
biomeal, mixtures of 5:10:5 ormichem, micronutrient mixtures have proved useful in grape
production. Fertilizers are applied mainly twice in a year at the time of pruning, besides
occasional foliar sprays are also practiced. Now-a days, Fertigation techniques is being
popular in grape growers.
Grape shoots, leaves,
blossoms and berries are attacked by many fungi and insect pests, besides some nematodes
are also cause damage to roots.
diseases Anthracnose, Powdery mildew, Downy mildew,
Dead arm, Botraytis
diseases Xyantomonas, blight.
Fan leaf disease
Major Insect pests
Flea beetle, Mealy bug, Red mite, Thrips, caterpillars.
Soil born pests
Nematodes, phyloxere, white ants, and white grub.
Control measures: A
number of systemic and contact fungicides and pesticides are available and are to be used
as per following local schedule.
Besides pests and
diseases the crop is to be protected against weeds, Cyprus, doob grass, Parthenium olerace
are some of the common and important weeds found in vineyards. They are controlled by
frequent weeding fruit ching/growing cover crops or by using chemical weedicides as
Gramaxone, Basaline, Roundup, Glycel, etc.
Grape bunches are also
to be protected against hot sun, Cold wave, dry air spell, Dew and Storm. Some chemical
some physiological and some mechanical means methods are adopted.
Harvesting and yields:
Normal grape harvest
season starts in February and continuous up to end of April. Well matured bunches having
at least 180 Brix are harvested
Av. yields - For
seedless varieties - 20 to 30 t/ha/y
For seeded varieties -
40 to 50 t/ha/y
Post Harvest handling:
Harvested grapes are
packed in 2 to 4 kg-corrugated boxes. Grape guards, pouches are kept inside the boxes for
distant markets. Pre-cooling and use of grape guards are the musts for cold storage and
Calcutta, Ahmedabad, Ludhiana, Patna, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, are the main
market places in the country.
Some additional features:
Export: Day by day
increased quantities are exported to Europe, Middle East, Dubai, etc.
making and champagne making are profitable and started at few places in Maharashtra and
Raisin making: A
good quality black and golden raisins are prepared from the varieties. The raisins are
increasing demand from Indian as well as from outside countries.