1. Introduction :

The grape is the most important crop grown in the world. Mostly it grown for making wines and preparation of raisin and then as a table fresh fruit. While in India, it is mainly grown for table use. Grape cultivation is believed to have originated near Caspian Sea, however, Indians know grapes since Roman times. Total area under grapes in India is about 40,000 ha, distributed mainly in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

2. Economic importance:

At present, grape is the most important fruit crop grown commercially with the objectives.

a.For table purpose

b.For export purpose

c.For making wines and

d.For making raisins.

Fresh grapes are a fairly good source of minerals like calcium, phosphorous, iron and vitamins like B. Famous champagne and other desert wines are prepared from grapes.

3. Climatic requirements:

The ideal climate for grape growing is the Mediterranean climate. In its natural habitat, the vines grow and produce during the hot and dry period. Under South Indian conditions – vines produce vegetative growth during the period from April to September and then fruiting period from October to March. Temperatures above 100C to 400C influence the yield and quality. High humidity and cloudy weather invite many fungal diseases, besides lowering the T.S.S. : Acid ratio.

4. Soil preference:

The grape is widely adopted to various soil conditions, but the yield and quality reach to the highest on good fertile soils have pH 6.5 to 8.5, organic carbon above 1.0%, free of lime and having a medium water holding capacity. Early but medium yields with high T.S.S. are harvested on medium type of soils.

5. Varieties:

a . Table purpose varieties-

    1. Seeded varieties –Cardinal, concord Emperor, Italia, Anab-e-shahi, Cheema sahebi, Kalisahebi, Rao Sahebi,
    2. Seedless varieties – Thompson seedless, flame seedless, kishmish chorni, perlette, Arkavati.
  1. Raisin purpose varieties – Thompson seedless, manik chaman, sonaka, Black corinth, Black monukka, Arkavati, Dattier
  2. Wine varieties – Chardonnay, Cabernet Saurignnon, Bangalore Blue, Muscat, Blanc, Pinot Noir, Pinot Blane, White Riesling, and Merlot.
6. Propagation:

Grapevine is most commonly propagated by hard-wood cuttings, though propagation by seed soft wood cutting, layering, grafting and budding is specific to certain situations. Occasionally, unrooted cuttings are also planted directly in the field in the pre-determined position for a vine. For hardwood cuttings, IBA, 1000 ppm treatment is useful for early, better and uniform rooting of cutting. For grafting Dog ridge, Ramsey, 1616, 1613,1103P, So4, etc. are used. Sometimes the rootstocks are planted in the field and there they are grafted with suitable varieties.


Planting and Season:

Usually planting is done from October onwards till January. Rarely planting is also done during June-July where the monsoon is late. Monsoon planting is avoided mainly for avoiding diseases on young growth. For planting N-S direction the trenches are opened. The size of trench may be 60 to 75 cm. Deep wide. Then these trenches are filled with FYM, organic manures, 5:10:5 organic mixtures, single super phosphates, biofertilisers, neem cakes, etc. Spacing for planting is maintained depending on soil type, variety and method of training. The distance between two rows may be 2 to 3 m while distance between vines within a row will be half of that, accommodating vines from 2000 to 5000 per hectare.



The following aspects are important:-

  1. Gap filling: To be done preferably during one month after planting.

  2. Recut: Basal cut keeping 2/3 buds is taken one month after planting with an objective to get uniform new growth.

  3. Supporting : The bamboo supports are fixed for vine support and young growing points are trained on them

  4. Weeding: The vine rows are weeded out, twice/thrice depending on the intensity of weeds.

  5. Irrigations – regular depending on soil and season are given.

  6. Fertilizers are applied with cow during slurry to hasten the growth.

  7. Suitable plant protection measures are following depending on incidence of pests and diseases.


Care of young orchard:

Grapes vines takes about 1.5 to 2 years after planting to bear the first crop. During this period the care of young vines is taken as under:-

  1. Training: The vines are trained first on bamboo and then on support – trellis. A suitable method of training is adopted.

  2. Pruning – Initial pruning is done only for training i.e. for developing trunk, arm, fruiting, canes, etc.

  3. The fertilizer doses – including organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers are applied twice in a year.

  4. Plant protection schedule is prepared and followed for the total initial period of growing.


Special Horticultural practices:

  1. Pruning and training: The vines are trained on a suitable trellis i.e. ‘T’, ‘Y’, ‘H’ or bower and regularly pruned twice in a year. First annual pruning is done during the month of April to get the new vegetative growth while second pruning to get the crop is done during the month of October. While doing April pruning 0 to 2 buds on arm are kept while doing October pruning 5 to 10 buds on fruiting cane are kept. Use of HCN is done to have early, uniform and higher sprouting particularly after winter pruning is made.

  2. Girdling: Vines are trunk girdled at bloom period to increase the fruit set, to increase the weight and T.S.S. and also to enhance maturity.

  3. Use of hormones: The following plant hormones at various stages and concentrations are usually used to increase the yield and to improve the quality of bunches.

  1. At bloom………….GA3.. …20 to 30 ppm; CCC …500 ppm
  2. At setting…………GA3 ….30 to 40 ppm; 6BA….. 5-10 ppm
  3. At 4-6 mm size ….GA3 … 40 to 50 ppm; Brassinos...100 ppm
  4. At 6-8 mm size … GA3 …30 to 50 ppm; Cppu…2-3 ppm


Grape is strictly irrigated perennial crop and regularly irrigated. For flood irrigation, 5-7 days during summer 8-10 days during winter and 15-20 days during rainy season – interval is maintained while for drip irrigation, 40-50 L; 30-40, 20-30 L of water per day per vine, water is applied.



Balanced nutrition and use of chemical, organic and biofertilisers is essential to get a good crop of good quality every year. About 700 to 900 N, 400 to 600 P and 750 to 1000 K Kgs/ ha/year are applied to get about 30 to 35 tonnes produced yearly.

The use of vermiphos, biomeal, mixtures of 5:10:5 ormichem, micronutrient mixtures have proved useful in grape production. Fertilizers are applied mainly twice in a year at the time of pruning, besides occasional foliar sprays are also practiced. Now-a days, Fertigation techniques is being popular in grape growers.


Plant protection:

Grape shoots, leaves, blossoms and berries are attacked by many fungi and insect pests, besides some nematodes are also cause damage to roots.

Major fungal diseases – Anthracnose, Powdery mildew, Downy mildew,

Dead arm, Botraytis and Botrodiplodia.

Major bacterial diseases –Xyantomonas, blight.

Viral diseases – Fan leaf disease

Major Insect pests – Flea beetle, Mealy bug, Red mite, Thrips, caterpillars.

Soil born pests – Nematodes, phyloxere, white ants, and white grub.

Control measures: A number of systemic and contact fungicides and pesticides are available and are to be used as per following local schedule.

Besides pests and diseases the crop is to be protected against weeds, Cyprus, doob grass, Parthenium olerace are some of the common and important weeds found in vineyards. They are controlled by frequent weeding fruit ching/growing cover crops or by using chemical weedicides as Gramaxone, Basaline, Roundup, Glycel, etc.

Grape bunches are also to be protected against hot sun, Cold wave, dry air spell, Dew and Storm. Some chemical some physiological and some mechanical means methods are adopted.


Harvesting and yields:

Normal grape harvest season starts in February and continuous up to end of April. Well matured bunches having at least 180 Brix are harvested

Av. yields - For seedless varieties - 20 to 30 t/ha/y

For seeded varieties - 40 to 50 t/ha/y


Post Harvest handling:

Harvested grapes are packed in 2 to 4 kg-corrugated boxes. Grape guards, pouches are kept inside the boxes for distant markets. Pre-cooling and use of grape guards are the musts for cold storage and export markets.

Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Ahmedabad, Ludhiana, Patna, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, are the main market places in the country.


Some additional features:

  1. Export: Day by day increased quantities are exported to Europe, Middle East, Dubai, etc.

  2. Winemaking: Wine making and champagne making are profitable and started at few places in Maharashtra and Karnataka.

  3. Raisin making: A good quality black and golden raisins are prepared from the varieties. The raisins are increasing demand from Indian as well as from outside countries.