1 Brinjal shoot and fruit borer:
Lucinodes orbonalis Guen
This pest is widely distributed all over India and is found associated with a number of host plants. It is one of the most serious pests of brinjal fruits and plants. The infestation on brinjal can be as high as 70 per cent.
The moths are medium sized. The wings are whitish with large brown patches all over. Wings expanse 22-26mm. Full grown larva is light pink measuring about 12mm long.
Infestation starts after few weeks of transplantation. The caterpillars bore into the growing shoots or petioles large leaves and feed on internal tissues. As a result of damage, affected shoots wither and plants exhibit the symptoms of drooping. After fruit formation larva make their entry under the calyx when they are young. The holes later plugged with excreta leaving no visible sign of infestation. Large holes seen on the fruits are the exit holes.
A female lays on an average 250 eggs on leaves, shoots or sometimes on fruits. Incubation period is 3-5 days, larva become full grown in 7-13 days. The full grown larva comes out and pupation takes place in boat shaped cocoons on the plant itself. The pupal period lasts about 7-10 days. Adults live for 2-3 days. The pest is active throughout the year.
Besides brinjal, the pest is also known to infest potato, bitter gourd, pea pods, cucurbits etc.
1. Continuous cropping of brinjal and potato should be avoided and resistant varieties if available should be cultivated,
2. Removal and destruction of affected shoot and fruits alongwith larvae
3. Spraying with 0.05% monocrotophos 36 WSC or 0.2% carbaryl or dusting with 10% carbaryl 3-4 weeks after transplantation subsequent application 15 days thereafter controls the pest effectively.
4. Use of Resistant/Tolerant varieties in endemic zones.
2. Brinjal leaf roller
Antoba olivacea M.
It is a minor pest but occasionally assumes a serious form.
Moths are medium sized having wing expanses 25-35mm. Fore wing are green in colour. They always found in the leaf folds. As a result of damage the folded leaves wither and dry up.
It feeds on brinjal and other salanaceous plants only.
Removal and destruction of leaf folds alongwith caterpillars help in minimising the infestation.
Dusting with 10% carbaryl at the rate of 20-25 kg/ha.
Spray the crop with formothion 0.025% or phosphamidon 0.02%.
Urentius echinus D. and Economic
It is minor pest of brinjal in the State of Maharashtra.
Adults are oval in shape, straw coloured dorsaly and black on the ventral side. They measure about 3mm long. Nymphs are oval, greenish yellow with few black dots.
It is specific pest of brinjal. Nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from leaves, affected leaves become yellowish and lower surface are found covered with black insect excreta. The summer crop suffers comparatively more.
Eggs is laid on lower surface of the leaves. A single female lays about 35-45 eggs, which hatch within 4-12 days. Nymph moult 5 times in a period of 10-21 days. Adults longevity is 30-40 days. There are 8 overlapping generations in a year.
Sulphur dusting or 0.2% sulphur or Dicofol 0.04% or formothion 0.05% spray controls mites effectively.
Myzus persicae Sulz
Aphids are tiny yellowish soft-bodied insects, the adult is along 1mm long and has two projections called cornicles on the dorsal side of abdomen.
Aphids are found in large colonies on underside o leaves and tender shoots. The nymphs and adults suck the sap. Therefore, the affected leaves turn yellow, get wrinkled and destorted. The insect also exude honeydew on which fungus develops, rapidly covers the plant with sooty mould that interferes with the photosynthetic activity of the plant. As a result, the growth of plant is stunted and yield is affected adversely. Besides, they act as a vector for transmitting by aphds. The loss caused on this account is far more severe than by their feeding and devitalizing the plant.
Adults and apterous forms reproduce parthenogenitically. Single female produces 8-22 nymphs/day. The nymphs are completed in 7 to 9 days and several generations are completed in a season.
It is a polyphagous species have been recorded on cabbage, brinjal, radish, chilly, tomato, tobacco, sanhemp, sweet potato etc.
Spraying with 0.05% endosulfan, 0.02% phosphamidon, 0.03% dimethoate, methyl demeton or thiometon control the pest effectively.
Amrasca biguttula bigutula Ishida
The adults are greenish yellow tith front wings having a black spot on each, at the apical margin and two black spots on the vertex of the head. The nymphs are also green. They walk diagonally.
Both nymphs and adult suck the sap from the lower surface of the leaves. The damaged leaves curl upwards along the margins. Which may turn yellowish and show burnt patches. This affect adversely plant growth and yield.
Whitish eggs are laid along leaf veins, which hatch about a week. Nymph moults 5 times and become adults within weeks. A generation is completed in a period of one month.
Cotton, bhendi and other malvaceous plants.
Spraying with 0.05% endosulfan, 0.03% Dimethoate or thiometon and 0.02% phosphamidon control the pest effectively.