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Tomato Seed Selection

Maximising tomato yield by prospective seed / variety selection

Choice of right, high-yielding, certified seed of current/new varieties suited for their area helps farmers in better yield. Early,compact, biotic (pest and diseases) and abiotic (heat and night cold) stress tolerant, quality andmarket proven cultivars are ideally preferred for high yield in tomato.Tomato crop is grown in open fields as well as poly houses.

Criteria to be taken care while seed selection is:

1. Maturity:
Tomato is a day neutral plant so can be grown in any season throughout the year. Tomatoes cover about 120 to 150 days. In north plains the crop should be complete before frost. Days to maturity are useful in deciding a variety. For short growing season it is good to pick varieties that have the short days to maturity. Duration also decides cropping pattern of such suitability of double cropping, crop rotation etc in a field.

2. Disease and pest tolerance:
Disease and pest tolerance is another important concern for good yield. The major diseases and pests affecting tomato all over India is given below. Enhancing soil health by using bio-control agents controls root diseases and nematodes. Select hybrids and varieties with resistance to diseases and pest which is prevalent in that area. Use of resistant or tolerant varieties/hybrids is the best and economic way of disease and pest control.

PestPrevalent region
Fruit BorerThroughout the country
Serpentine leaf miner
Tobacco caterpillar
Root-Knot Nematode
Leaf defoliator
JassidsMadhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
Mealy BugAndhra Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, Punjab
Cut wormJammu & Kashmir
AphidsBihar, Rajasthan, Karnataka, West Bengal, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Bacterial Wilt Throughout the country
Fusarium Wilt
Leaf Blight
Virus diseases
Late blight Gangetic plains of eastern India
Powdery Mildew Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
Early blightGangetic plains of eastern India
Damping OffNorth plain region
Fruit rotCentral India

3. Yield
For farmers yield is an important criterion. Variety chosen should be consistent in yielding in a locality over a period of time. Todays improved varieties can yield about 25–30 tons/ac.Regular bearers are suited for distant market whereas irregular bearers are suited for local requirements.Hybrids have better yield advantage over varieties.

4. Other considerations
Additional factors to be considered are
• Plant type/growth habit: Many varieties of tomato are grown all over the country. Growth habit of tomato can be determinate, semi-determinate and intermediate. Determinate types are usually early and suitable for open field.Indeterminate and semi-determinate types aremost suitable for polyhouse cultivation.

• Fruit quality: Size, colour, taste, shelf life, flavor, texture,uniform fruiting, and resistance to cracking are important. Short calyx fruit is desirable since a long calyx on the fruit can damage adjacent fruit during packing. Fruits with deep red colour, more pulp and medium stout are preferable. Good storage capacity is suitable for distant marketing.

• Varietal purity: The minimum standard set for physical purity in tomato is 98 percent. Genetic purity is set to be cent percent.

• Seed cost: The cost should be reasonable and enough to be met with the profit due to the yield advantage of the crop variety sown.

Promising varieties of tomato

FeaturesRecommended cultivar
Kharifand RabiseasonRajashree, Dhanashree, Bhagyshree, N.S.-535, N.S.-815,Pusa ruby, Punjab chhuhara, Pusa Hybrid-1 and Pusa Hybrid-2, HS-10,Pant Bahar
Rabi and Summer seasonN.S.-816
Distant marketAnkur-128, H.T.M 108, Lirika, Manisha, Hrishi, T.H.-390, Pradnya, Apurva, ArkaShreshta, Pusa Hybrid 2, Manmohan,Akash
YieldNath Amrut-101, Nath Amrut-210, Kuber Gita, Avinash-2, Nath Amrut-901, Nath Amrut-601, Nath Amrut-110, Hybrid Chuhara, Divya, Pusa Hybrid 1, Hybrid No. 15, Hybrid No. 14, Swarna, Suman, Century-12,Pusa Red Plum,Sioux
Early typesPusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Red Plum
Local marketH.T.M.185, Abhiman
Deepcolour and processing valueH.T.M 108, Kuber Gita, Ratna, Lirika, Rasika, Avinash-2, Hybrid Chuhara, Minakshi, Madhuri, Arth-4, ArkaAbhijeet, Arti, Supriya, Arth-3, T.H.-390, Pradnya, Apurva, Vishal Arka, ArkaVardan, ArkaShreshta, Pusa Hybrid 4, Pusa Red Plum, Manmohan, Century-12, Suraksha, N.S.-535, Rupali, Ramya
Resistant to tomato yellow virus and susceptible to mosaic virusAvinash-2,ArkaAnanya, KashiVishesh, KashiAmrit, COTH 2, TNAU Tomato Hybrid Co3
Resistant to Verticiliumand FusariumHrishi,Karnataka,I.A.H.S.88-1,I.A.H.S.88-2,Shital,Mangala,Vaishalee,Navin
Resistant to rootknot nematodeKarnataka,Pusa-120, Pusa Hybrid-2, Pusa Hybrid-4, ArkaVardan, HisarLalit, TNAU Tomato Hybrid Co3
Resistant to bacteria wiltArkaShreshta, Suraksha,ArkaAnanya, ArkaAbhijit, ArkaAbha, ArkaAlok
Kitchen gardeningHybrid No. 15
Poly house cultivationSuman,Avatar and Avinash hybrids
Resistant to fruit crackingN.S.-812, Ustava
TSS of fruit juice (5.0-5.2 brix)Amogh, Arth-4, Suraksha
Semi-spreading with bushy natureAnkur-128
Resists hot seasonPusa Hybrid 1, Hrishi, Kuber Gita,Vaishalee
StorabilityArkaAbhijeet, Manisha, H.T.M 108
Organic farmingOpen Pollinated Varieties (OPVs)
HybridsArkaAbhijit, ArkaShresta, Arka Vishal, ArkaVardan, Pusa Hybrid 1, Pusa Hybrid 2, COTH 1 Hybrid Tomato, Rashmi, Vaishali, Rupali, Naveen, Avinash 2, MTH 4, Sadabahar, Gulmohar and Sonali
DeterminateVaishali,ArkaAlok,S-152,Punjab Chuhra,Roma,Co 1,Pusa Early Dwarf,Rajni,Rashmi,Rupali,
Semi-determinateArkaVikas, ArkaSaurabh, ArkaMeghali, ArkaAhuti, ArkaAshish, ArkaAbha, ArkaShreshta, ArkaAbhijit
IndeterminateBest of All, Marglobe, Arka Vishal, ArkaVardan,
ZoneRecommended cultivar
All over IndiaArkaSaurabh, ArkaVikas, ArkaAhuti, ArkaAshish, ArkaAbha , ArkaAlok, HS101, HS102, HS110, HisarArun, HisarLalima, HisarLalit, HisarAnmol, KS.2, Narendra Tomato 1, Narendra Tomato 2, Pusa Red Plum, Pusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Ruby, Co-1, CO 2, CO 3, S-12, Punjab Chhuhara, PKM 1, Pusa Ruby, Paiyur-1, Shakthi, SL 120, PusaGaurav, S 12, Pant Bahar, Pant T3, SolanGola and ArkaMeghali
South, East and Central IndiaUstava
East and South IndiaAmogh
East and North IndiaN.S.-816
Plains of South and EastN.S.-815
Uttar PradeshPusa Hybrid 1
Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala.ArkaVardan,KashiVishesh
Punjab, Bihar, and Uttar PradeshVishal Arka
hill regionsAbhiman,Sioux
Assam, West Bengal, Maharashtra, East Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and KarnatakaArth-3
Punjab, Bihar Plains of U.P., Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.Arth-4
winter season for Northern plainsHS-101

Ambika Rajendran*, Dhanadapani Raju*
Scientist, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa campus, New Delhi-110012

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