Method of Application

On the basis of method of use the fungicides or bactericides they can be grouped in the following categories.

Seed protectants

Soil fungicides

Foliage protectants

A fungicide used for coating the seed for protection against seed-borne and soil-borne pathogens eg. Organo mercurial fungicides, thiram, captan etc. Used for treatment of soil, such as brassicol, copper oxychloride, Bordeaux mixture, Maneb, dithiocarbamates (Zineb), etc. Used for spraying or dusting on the aerial parts of the plant such as copper oxychloride,dithiocarbamates (Zineb), Bordeaux mixture, Maneb, Bavistin, Benlate, Calixin, Wettable sulphur etc.

Following are the diseases of tomato, which control by following methods of fungicide application:-



Method of application

Bacterial fruit spot

Streptocycline (100PPm) or copper fungicides


Tomato leaf curl

Disease is transmitted by whitefly hence to check the whitefly population use insecticides fuadan or disyston @1kg ai/ha.

Soil application treating the nursery beds with granular insecticides.

Tomato big bud

Metasystox (0.02%) or nuvacron (0.05%) at ten days intervals to control the insect vector (leaf hopper) population.


Early blight

Mancozeb @ 0.2%

Foliar spray

Late blight

Mancozeb @ 0.2%

Foliar spray

Septoria leaf spot

Mancozeb @2 g/kg.0.2% Dithane Z-78

Seed treatment /Foliar spraying

Leaf mould/black mould 

Mancozeb @ 0.2%

Foliar spray


0.1% carbendazim or benomyl

Soil drenching

Powdery mildew

Dinocap at 0.1% or Wet sulphur at 0.2%


Points to be considered while purchasing fungicides

Examine and note the following information of each available fungicide, bactericide and antibiotics.

Concentration to be used
Method of use
Effective against
Date of manufacture
Expiry date

Care and Management


Select the suitable fungicide/bactericide or antibiotic to be sprayed against the specific disease.
Weigh the fungicide as per the schedule of plant protection.
If spray fungicide is required, mixes in little water (about one litre) first and make up to the desired volume.
If dusting is to be done, it should be done in the morning or evening.
Dusting should be done in the direction of wind.
Do not harvest crops (especially vegetables) until the waiting period for the fungicides has passed.

While buying fungicides

Before buying fungicides answer the following questions:-
Which disease is to be controlled?
Buy fungicides from a reputable and reliable licensed store.
Do not buy in bulk, buy only as much as you expect to use within a short period.
Buy only fungicides in their original package with proper labelling.
Buy only fungicides with the ISI mark. This shows that, the fungicide conforms to the standards laid down by the bureau of Indian standards.
Do not buy banned, restricted or highly toxic fungicides.
Use only the recommended fungicide for the problem. If several fungicides are recommended, choose the least toxic fungicide to mammals and if possible the least persistant

While transporting fungicides

Do not transport fungicides together with food products, fodder or other commodities.
Make sure that fungicides are adequately packaged and do not spill or leak out.
If the fungicide spills or leaks, wash the vehicle that has been used for transporting the fungicides. For this apply bleaching lime paste (1kg lime for every 4 litres of water) and wash it off with water twice or thrice within an hour after its spillage. If the fungicides spill on to the clothing wash it thoroughly.

In the storage of fungicides

Do not keep fungicides in the kitchen or living room. Keep them away from food, animal feed and fodder, and containers of potable water.
Be careful of cross-contamination. Store herbicides separately from other kinds of fungicides.
Reseal containers after partial use.

Before application

Read the label and the instruction carefully before opening the fungicide packet (or) bottle.
Make sure that the appropriate protective clothing is available.
Check that plenty of water is available with soap and towel.
Check application equipment for leaks, calibrate with water and ensure that it is in proper working order.
Take only sufficient fungicide for the day’s application from the store to the site of application.

While mixing, fungicides and during application

Always use a long wooden stick for mixing fungicides in water.
Never blow out clogged nozzles or hose with mouth. Use a fine wire or pin.
Spray early in the morning or in the evening suspend spraying during mid day in summer months.
Avoid application of fungicides on rainy or cloudy days.
Check the wind direction before starting to spray. Start spraying at the downwind edge of the field, and move upwind so you are always moving into the unsprayed area. Always move along the wind while spraying and dusting so that the spray or dust is directed by air current away from you. Do not spray in strong winds.
Never eat, drink, or smoke while mixing or applying fungicides.

After application

Return unused fungicide to the store. Never leave fungicides unattended in the field.
Safely dispose all empty fungicide containers by burning or burying them in the field.
If containers are burnt, don’t stand in the smoke.
Do not use them to store food, water or as cooking utensils.
All the protective clothing must be washed immediately after spraying. Wash them separately from other clothes.
Never leave fungicides in sprayers or dusters. Clean equipments with soap, detergent or soda solution and fresh water. Rinse with fresh water once or twice before returning the equipment to store room.
Keep the record of the use of fungicides.

Advantages & Disadvantages



Quick and reliable control measure of diseases.

If not carefully used becomes harmful. It causes harmful effect if not carefully handled during transport/spraying/storage and at the time of disposal are containers.

Available in various formulations viz. Powder, granular form.

Sometimes wrong fungicides used by illiterate people and also in excess dosage, and wrong method of application.

Used as seed treatments/soil application/Foliar spraying.

Leave residues on crop.


For individual farmer it is not affordable due to high price and it is not required in bulk.